Almenn verkefni 2023

Heiti verkefnis : 

Fjarskipti við baujur með LoRa og nákvæm staðsetning þeirra

Verkefnastjóri : 


Stutt lýsing á verkefninu:


Maritime navigation marks need to be installed with a high precision positioning. 

In the CommBuoy project, we developed the first research prototype of a system that simplifies this process by providing an accurate position of the buoy during the installation. The prototype utilised GPS, enhanced with the differential correction data provided by a Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS). The correction data is available over the Internet. However, while installing a floating buoy, an Internet connection may not be available. Therefore, we used a novel long-range, low-power wireless networking technology known as LoRa for the “last mile”.  The prototype system was evaluated in a field trial, which validated the basic idea and usefulness of the system, but it was observed that obtaining the positioning update rate using LoRa is challenging. It was also demonstrated that two units are needed, one high accuracy unit used on board the vessel that installs buoys and a standard accuracy unit with extremely low power consumption for monitoring possible movements of buoys during their lifetime. A good candidate communication system for the former unit would be Wi-Fi and LoRa for the second unit. 

This project, HASbuoy, builds on the success of the CommBuoy project. In HASbuoy we will (i) address the shortcomings experienced with the off-the-shelf hardware, (ii) improve the system usability and (iii) adapt to the new technology that has become available meanwhile. More precisely, we will design our own PCB boards which enables us to choose external components carefully with the energy-efficiency in mind. Second, we will develop the software and its user-interface based on the feedback we obtained during the field trials carried out in the Reykjavík harbour. Third, Galileo has announced a new high accuracy service (HAS)  that is now operational, which means that the buoy installation unit can be simplified.

Tilgangur og markmið:


The objective of this research is to create and study a long-range, low power wireless IoT network using bleeding edge technology: the new Galileo high accuracy service and LoRa communication []. Due to the success of the first project, we refer to this system as CommBuoy (and apologise for the ambiguity). LoRa can be used to transmit sensor data where no electrical grid or other communication networks are available, e.g. highlands, ocean, or after a disaster. For the ocean, ranges of up to 83.6 km have been reported [Radeta et al., 2020; Parri et al., 2019].

Using the low-power LoRa wireless network together with a low-power Internet of Things (IoT) device, the system can be powered by battery (with optional power supply by a solar panel) and remain on the buoy after installation so that it can be used for monitoring, e.g., report any drift of the buoy or data from any other sensors attached. The target battery-operated lifetime is two years.

The project aims at exploring the new Galileo HAS service and its performance in Iceland. This is worthwhile since it means great simplification of the unit used for buoy installation as well as the communications needed. Furthemore, the HAS service will be valuable in a range of other applications important for Vegagerðin, yielding increased value of this study.

The research prototype system (utilizing differential correction data for GPS) will be taken to the next stage. This means switching to the Galileo HAS, developing energy-efficient buoy unit, and integrating the new components to the core system. The prototype system is further evaluated by means of experiments and field trial(s).


  1. Þorsteinn Sæmundsson (2022). Design and Implementation of a Buoy Positioning and Monitoring System Using Differential GNSS and LoRaWAN. MSc. thesis, University of Iceland.
  2. Galileo HAS: